It is the study of the sound patterns in a language.*Phonetics
It provides us with the means by which we can describe sounds.
or It gives us the general linguistic knowledge to describe any sound in a language.*Phoneme:
It is the smallest linguistic unit in a language. That is , the phoneme is the distinctive sound unit in language .Phoneme
is capable of changing the sound and meaning.
: *Free variation
The sound changes but the meaning is the same or does not change .
Ex: economic *Homophone
It is the same sound but the meaning is different.
ex: sole : 1-only. 2- a kind of fish . 3- the bottom of a shoe.*Nasalization
It is producing the vowel through the nose.
The vowel is nasalized if it occurs before a nasal consonant.
bean [b i: n] the sign of nasalization.
The |n| is +nasal
It is the sound of air blowing out when some voiceless consonants are produced before a vowel.
The voiceless stops (p, t, k) are aspirated when one of them occurs word initially before a stressed vowel.
a: r] the sign of aspiration.
I| ] Notice:
transcription which belongs to phonetics is marked by slashes / / to show that the symbols represent phonemes like /b i: n/ , /k I| / . But the phonetic
transcription, involving the non-distinctive features, is marked by square brackets  which enclose phonetic segments or phones and gives more details in articulation like [b i: n] , [kh
It is when two phonemes occur in sequence and some aspect of one phoneme is akin or 'copied' by the other for the sake of ease of articulation in everyday speech. Examples
1-In isolation you would pronounce /i/ and /æ/ without any nasal quality at all. However in words like 'pin' and 'pan', the anticipation of forming the final nasal consonant will make it easier to go into the nasalized articulation in advance and consequently the vowel sounds in these words will be in precise transcription [i] and [æ] . In fact, a phonological rule can be stated in the following way: 'any vowel becomes nasal whenever it immediately precedes a nasal'.
2-You may pronounce the word 'can' as (kæn), but if you tell someone 'I can go' , the influence of the following velar [g] will almost certainly make the preceding nasal sound come out as [η ] (a velar) rather than [n] (an alveolar). The most commonly observed 'conversational' version of the phrase is bol]¶
ηgo].In many words , the vowel receives stress, but in the course of ordinary talk, that vowel may no longer receive any stress. For example you may pronounce 'and' as [ænd] in isolation but in the casual use the phrase 'you and me', you say ]¶
n] as in ol]¶
They are rules in which a segment becomes less similar to another segment rather than more similar. For example, many speakers in English dissimilate the sequence of the two fricatives /fq
/ in the word “diphthong”, and they pronounce it with a bilabial stop |p| instead of the labial fricative |f|. That is, they pronounce it à
/ instead of /d¶fq
It is the omission of a sound segment.
1-'he must be' :[him^sbi]
2-'we asked him' :[wiæstIm]
3-Vowels also disappear as in the middle of [IntrIst]for interest , or [kæbnIt] for cabinet. *Homorganic rule
It is a word that is divided into two syllables and they have the same place of articulation.Examples :
n,d are alveolar
,g are velar V and C length *1- V+ Vd C
long length (duration)
dle & bead2- V+V.l C= V
t 3- V+ pause= V: 1 2
word boundary : it may lengthen the vowel.The sound in the first word ends in consonant and the second one starts with the same consonant .*Syllable Structure S
across syllable boundary. am/ble ينتهي المقطع ب nasal والمقطع الثاني يبدأ ب .oral stop S1n + oral stop.*Segment deletion and addition rule:
By means of this rule, we can add or delete not only a feature of a segment but also a whole segment.a. Segment addition is like:
The two words: sense /sens/ and minse /mIns/ are pronounced by some people with an added |t|: sense /sent
s/ & minse /mInt
s/b. Segment deletion is like
what we do with contracted form of the auxiliaries like:
I will à
I’ll , He is à
He’s , He will not à
He won’t *Sequence of phonemes or Sequential Constraints
In general, the sequence of phonemes of the language is not random. If a nasal is followed by a stop, the sounds should be homorganic a. a bilabial nasal should be followed by bilabial stops:
le – grumb
le – lamp
(|m| is the bilabial nasal and |p| or |b| are the bilabial stops)
(|m|+|p| or |b|)