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 Morphology

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مُساهمةموضوع: Morphology   الأربعاء 30 مارس 2011, 10:21 pm

Morphology
Morphology
This term means the study of forms, analyzes all the basic elements which are used in a language in the form of a linguistic message.
III-Morphology


Morpheme:

It is the smallest linguistic unit.

Affixes


Prefix Infix suffix

Reread foot ® feet reader

* Morphemes


Free Bound


Inflectional Derivational



Suffix Infix prefix suffix

1-/s / plural (cats) break – broke

2-/s/ 3rd person (reads) rewrite writer

3-/s/ possessive "singular"

boy's

4-/s/ possessive plural

boys'

5-/ing/ present participle : writing

6-/ed/ past : played

7-/ed/ past participle : has played

8-/er/ comparative : bigger

9-/est/ superlative : biggest



b. an alveolar nasal should be followed by alveolar stops:

ex: tend grind print attentive

(the |n| is the alveolar nasal and |d| or |t| are the alveolar stops)

(|n| + |d| or |t|)

c. a velar from soft palate , nasal should be followed by velar stops: |g| and |k|:




a velar stop


a velar nasal





ex: mango /mæhgÈ/ ankle /æhkl/ (/h/ + /g/ or /k/)





If a word begins with |l| or |r| , the next segment must be a vowel:

e.g.: little à /|It|/ right à /raIt/

3. If a word starts with |tò| or |dx| , the next segment must be a vowel:

ex.:

cheese
Job
Jack
|tòi:z|
|d3Db|
|d3æk|


Types of morphemes
There are free morphemes which can sand by themselves as single words e.g. open and tour. There are also bound morphemes, that is, those which cannot normally stand alone, but which are typically attached to another form. E.g. re-ist-ed-s all affixes in English are bound morphemes:
Free morphemes are the words which carry the 'content' of messages we convey. These free morphemes are called lexical morphemes and some examples are boy , man , house , tiger , sad , long , yellow , sincere , open , look , follow , break and but , when , because , on , near , above , in , the , that, it. This set consists largely of the functions words in the language such as conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns.
Also, bound morphemes are divided into two types : derivational morphemes and inflectional morphemes . First , derivational morphemes are used to make new words in the language and are often used to make words of a different grammatical category. Thus, the addition of the derivational morpheme will include suffixes such as the -ish in foolish , the -ly in badly and the –ment in payment. It will also include prefixes such as re-pre= ex- dis – co- un-.Second , inflectional morphemes are not used to produce new words in the English language but rather to indicate aspects of the grammatical function of a word. Inflectional morphemes are used to show if a word is plural or singular, if it is past tense or not, and if it is a comparative or possessive form.

Allomorphs& Morphs
Morphs and allomorphs
Phones as the actual phonemes then morphs as the actual phonetic realization of morphemes .For example , the word 'cat' is a single morph realizing a lexical morpheme. Allomorphs:
Allomorph is the variant forms of the same phoneme .
There are three types of allomorphs: plural, past and negative.


1)plural

-Cats ® /s/

v.l allomorph

-Dogs®/z/

vd allomorph

-Boxes ® /z / or /Iz/

vd(sibilant) allomorph
: /s/
تنطق
v.l إذا أتي قبلها /s/-
v.d إذا أتي قبلها /z/-


2)Past allomorphs

- Seemed / d /

v.d

- تنطق الـ "ed" ¬ / /d إذا أتى قبلها voiced وإذا أتى قبلها voiceless

- Helped / t /

v.l

- تنطق /t/ وإذا أتى قبلها كلمة تنتهي بـ / t / أو /d/ فتنطق /Id/ or /¶d/

- Parted : /d/ or /Id/

- Faded : /d/ or /Id/

3)Negative allomorphs

-disagree

-unaccepted

-illegal

-immortal

-inaccurate

-irregular
Examples


Give a morphological analysis for the following words:
Meaninglessness



Word
Analysis
mean -
Base – free – verb
ing -
Suffix – bound – inflectional – V → N
less
Suffix – bound – negative – derivational –


N → adj. –
- ness
Suffix – bound – derivational – Adj. → N
Girlfriend



Word
Analysis
Girl
Base – free – noun
- friend
Base – free – noun
Unacceptable



Word
Analysis
Un -
Prefix – bound – negative – derivational
accept
Base – free – verb
- able
Suffix - bound – derivational – V → Adj.
Disagreement



Word
Analysis
Dis -
Prefix – negative – bound – derivational
agree
Base – free – verb
- ment
Suffix – bound – derivational – V → N

(s-z--ò-3--d3): sibilants/ إذا أتي قبلها Iz/ - /z/-




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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Morphology   الأربعاء 01 يونيو 2011, 8:56 am

So beautiful
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Morphology
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