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 Word Formation Processes

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مُساهمةموضوع: Word Formation Processes   الأربعاء 30 مارس 2011, 10:25 pm

Word Formation Processes
These processes are :
1)Coinage
It is the invention of totally new words and terms which have quickly become everyday words in the language.
Examples
-Aspirin -Nylon -Kodak -Xerox -Kleenex
2)Borrowing
It is the taking over of words from other languages. It is one of the common sources of new words in English .Throughout its history, the English language has adopted a vast number of loan-words from other languages.
Examples
alcohol (Arabic), boss (Dutch), croissant (French), lilac (Persian), piano (Italian) pretzel German, robot (Czech), tycoon ( Japanese), yoghurt (Turkish) and zebra (Bantu).
Also, there is a special type of borrowing that is described as loan-translation, or calque. In this process , there is a direct translation of the elements of a word into the borrowing language.
Examples
-the English word 'superman' is a loan-translation of the German Uber-mensch,
-some Spanish speakers eat perros calientes ( literally dogs hot)or no dogs.
-The Japanese use of 'suupaamaaketto' for the English word ''supermarket'' and 'rajio' for ''radio''.
-The Hungarians' talking about sport for 'klub' and 'futbal'.
-The English word ''honeymoon'' is a loan-translation or a Calque of the Spanish term ,''luna de miel''
3)Compounding
It is the joining of two separate words to produce a single form. This combining process is very common in languages like German and English but much less common in languages like French and Spanish.For example , in German , Lehn and Wort are combined to produce Lehnwort .
Obvious English examples are :
bookcase , fingerprint , sunburn , wallpaper , doorknob , textbook , wastebasket .
4)Blending
It means taking only the beginning of one word and joining it to the end of another word.
Examples
-In some parts of The United States , there's a product which is used like gasoline, but is made from alcohol, so the blended term for referring to this product is gasohol.
-If you wish to refer to the combined effects of smoke and fog there's the term smog.
- brunch for breakfast/lunch,
-motel for motor/noel.
-telecast for television/broadcast.
5)Clipping
It means reduction of syllables. That is , this process occurs when a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form. often in casual speech, the term gasoline is still in use, but occurs much less frequently than gas, the clipped form.
Common examples
-ad (advertisement)
-fan (fanatic)
-prof (professor)
- lab (laboratory)
6)Backformation
It is a very specialized type of reduction process . A word of one type usually a noun is reduced to form another word of a different type usually a verb. A good example of backformation is the process whereby the noun television first came into use and then the verb televise was created.
Other examples
-emote from emotion , enthuse from enthusiasm, opt from option , edit from editor and donate from donation.
7) Conversion (category change - functional shift)
It is a change in the function of a word as for example when a noun comes to be used as a verb without any reduction. A number of nouns, such as paper, butter, bottle, vacation can come to be used as verbs in the process of conversion as in the following sentences:
-he's papering the bedroom walls
-have you buttered the toast?
-We bottled the home-brew last night.
-they're vacationing in France.
Also , this process is particularly productive in modern English, with new uses occurring frequently. The conversion can involve verbs becoming nouns, with guess, must and spy as the sources of a guess , a must and a spy. Or adjectives, such as dirty , empty , total , crazy and nasty can become the verbs to dirty , to empty , to total or the nouns a crazy and a nasty. Other forms such as up and down can also become verbs as in they up prices .
8)Acronyms
It is the formation of new words from the initial letters of a set of other words. These acronyms often consist of capital letters, as in NATO , NASA or UNESCO.
Notice
acronyms can lose their capitals to become everyday terms such as laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) , radar (radio detecting and ranging and scuba (self contained underwater breathing apparatus) .
9)Derivation
It is the production of new English words and it is accomplished by means of a large number of small bits of the English language. These small bits are called affixes and a few examples are the element un , mis, pre, ful, less, ish, ism, ness which appear in words like unhappy, misrepresent , prejudge, joyful, careless, boyish, terrorism and sadness.
10)Prefixes and suffixes
In the preceding group of word, it should be obvious that some affixes have to be added to the beginning of a word e.g. un and these are called prefixes. The other affix forms are added to the end of the word e.g. ish and these are called suffixes. All English words formed by this derivational process use either prefixes or suffixes or both. For example , mislead has a prefix, disrespectful has both a prefix and a suffix and foolishness has two suffixes.
11)Infixes
There is a third type of affix not normally to be found in English but fairly common in some other languages.
12)Multiple processes
It is the operation of more than one process at work in the creation of a particular word. For example the term deli seems to have become a common American English expression via a process of first borrowing ''delicatessen'' from German and then clipping that borrowed form.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Word Formation Processes   الأربعاء 01 يونيو 2011, 8:55 am

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Word Formation Processes
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